Project Title

Research on Promoting Trade in Services by SMEs and Women Entrepreneurs 

Project Year

2018   

Project Number

CTI 09 2018T 

Project Session

Session 2   

Project Type

Standard 

Project Status

Project in Implementation   
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Project No.

CTI 09 2018T 

Project Title

Research on Promoting Trade in Services by SMEs and Women Entrepreneurs 

Project Status

Project in Implementation 

Publication (if any)

 

Fund Account

TILF Special Account 

Sub-fund

None 

Project Year

2018 

Project Session

Session 2 

APEC Funding

38,000 

Co-funding Amount

Total Project Value

38,000 

Sponsoring Forum

Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI) 

Topics

Trade Facilitation 

Committee

Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI) 

Other Fora Involved

Group on Services (GOS); Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy (PPWE); Small and Medium Enterprises Working Group (SMEWG) 

Other Non-APEC Stakeholders Involved

 

Proposing Economy(ies)

Japan 

Co-Sponsoring Economies

Korea; Malaysia; Mexico; Thailand 

Expected Start Date

01/11/2018 

Expected Completion Date

31/09/2019 

Project Proponent Name 1

Hikari Ishido 

Job Title 1

Professor 

Organization 1

APEC StudyCenter Japa (within Chiba University) 

Postal Address 1

1-33 Yayoi-Cho, Inage-Ku, Chiba City, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan 

Telephone 1

(81-43) 2902424 

Fax 1

Not Applicable 

Email 1

ishido@faculty.chiba-u.jp 

Project Proponent Name 2

Not Applicable 

Job Title 2

Not Applicable 

Organization 2

Not Applicable 

Postal Address 2

Not Applicable 

Telephone 2

Not Applicable 

Fax 2

Not Applicable 

Email 2

Not Applicable 

Declaration

Hikari Ishida 

Project Summary

The project investigates the relevance and impacts of service trade liberalization in the Asia Pacific region in accordance with the APEC Services Competitiveness Roadmap (ASCR), Environmental Service Action Plan (ESAP) and Manufacturing Related Services Action Plan (MSAP). Our goal is to make a policy proposal for promoting Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)’ and women’s participation in service trade. In the project, we will prepare an in-depth research report analyzing to what extent service trade liberalization can be achieved. More specifically, the domestically oriented public sectors (e.g., educational services and environmental services) as well as the real estate services with a high growth potential after liberalization are closely analysed, based on OECD and the World Bank’s policy criteria including legal form of entry and restrictions on foreign equity, licensing requirements, restrictions on operation, regulatory environment and qualification requirements. Particular attention is given to SMEs and women entrepreneurship with detailed case studies.

Relevance

Relevance: Region: While 80% of the population in the world is said to be engaged in the service industry, its liberalization has scarcely progressed.  Unlike trade in goods, liberalization framework such as the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) under the WTO does not facilitate further service trade liberalization especially for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) as well as women entrepreneurs. Based on in-depth research, this project will conduct a research on promoting trade in services in accordance with APEC Services Competiveness Roadmap (ASCR), Environmental Service Action Plan (ESAP) and Manufacturing Related Services Action Plan (MSAP).

Relevance – Eligibility: This project, in the field of trade in services (with investment component also in view, as “mode 3” or commercial presence of services suppliers), is expected to contribute to achieving trade and investment liberalization and facilitation (TILF) objectives that are articulated by all of the Leaders’ Declarations. This project is also related to 8 of the 15 areas listed in the Osaka Action Agenda (OAA). More specifically, the OAA mentions as Services Objective that “APEC economies, in accordance with the APEC Policy Framework for Work on Services, will achieve free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region”, which is the very focus of this project. To enumerate, this project relates to the following 8 items covered by the OAA: (1) services, (2) non-tariff measures, (3) investment, (4) standards and conformance, (5) Competition policy, (6) mobility of business people, (7) transparency and (8) regional trade agreements.

Relevance – Capacity Building: The project pays special attention to the benefits of SMEs in APEC developing member economies. Capacity building on the issue of securing “level-playing fields” in various service sub-sectors (especially domestically oriented service sub-sectors with the majority presence of local SMEs) for them to participate in the supply of services first and then exports of those services would be the main goal of this project. More specifically, information on receiving management supports, financial/fiscal supports as well as regional supports would be indispensable for correcting the degree of market failure and thus securing level playing fields. This project will address these practical issues. In this connection, Figure 1 conceptualizes the linkage among SMEs (including women entrepreneurs), service trade restrictiveness and cumulative service output. As an example, mere lack of business confidence might hinder SMEs’ entry into foreign service markets. Knowledge dissemination (in the form of sharing an in-depth research report) on the participation of SMEs and women entrepreneurs in services trade is expected to eliminate such negative business sentiments and therefore will be the main focus of this project. 

From the perspective of “firm-level heterogeneity” by Melitz, Helpman, and Yeaple (2004), SMEs and women entrepreneurs are seen to face higher fixed cost for entering domestic as well as foreign markets. They then exhibit lower productivity levels. The least productive firms, usually SMEs (including women entrepreneurs), expect negative operating profits and therefore exit the industry. Firms with higher productivity levels can expect positive operating profits from sales in the domestic market, but expect to lose money from exports in mode 1 (“cross-border supply of services) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in mode 3 (supply of services through commercial presence). They therefore choose to serve the domestic market but not to serve the foreign economy. In principle, exports are more profitable than FDI for low-productivity firms and less profitable for high-productivity firms. There exist productivity levels at which exporters have positive operating profits that exceed the operating profits from FDI. Higher-productivity firms can export profitably. But those with still higher productivity gain more from FDI. For this reason, firms with intermediate productivity levels export while those with higher productivity levels build subsidiaries in the foreign economy, which they use as platforms for servicing the economy’s market.

As in Table 1, multiple free trade agreements (FTAs) are already in force. This situation, however, might be a source of unnecessary “trade costs” which, as a market failure, hinder the active participation especially of SMEs and women entrepreneurs in a sustainable manner, e.g., sheer existence of multiple FTAs with different service regulations is seen to reduce the effectiveness of those FTAs especially for SMEs and women entrepreneurs without specific business arms dedicated to compliance with and utilization of FTAs. A plurilateral FTA with a chapter on SMEs including women entrepreneurs, as a binding commitment which secures, e.g., establishment of a single window for promoting trade in services, is expected to facilitate SMEs’ entry into foreign service markets. This project addresses implicit trade costs facing SMEs and women entrepreneurs in the context of APEC-wide concerted policy efforts for liberalizing trade in services.

Objectives

This project has the following key objective: To increase participation of SMEs and women in service trade through the background publication of this project serving as a reference material. Following are the stage-by-stage objectives: (1) conduct research with a view to further liberalizing services sectors with due consideration to SMEs and women entrepreneurs and promoting economic inclusion; (2) share the research output with the APEC fora as well as private sector stakeholders including members of the APEC Business Advisory Council and members having connections with industry associations for SMEs and women entrepreneurs; and (3) suggest some concrete “pilot projects” for implementation by the APEC-related SMEs and women entrepreneurs. This project will ensure that the background publication be prepared as a reference material for SMEs and women entrepreneurs to actually participate in services trade under an FTAAP under proposal at the APEC.

Alignment

Alignment - APEC:  APEC has been prioritizing the active participation of SMEs and women entrepreneurs. APEC Services Competitiveness Roadmap (ASCR) (2016-2025) mentions 14 APEC-wide actions, including: "increased participation of MSMEs and women", "Supporting cross-border mobility for professionals", "Supporting liberalization, facilitation and cooperation of environmental services, under the agreed Environmental Services Action Plan (ESAP)", and "Supporting cooperation in the education sector". Since environmental services relate to manufacturing, the agreed Manufacturing Related Services Action Plan (MSAP) can be supported by this project. 

Also, the APEC 2018 chaired by PNG will specifically be targeting the “level-playing field” for business sectors including the service sectors, in a sustainable and innovative manner (e.g., through the extensive use of digital technologies). With the year of 2020 (which corresponds to the final year of the Bogor Goals) approaching, the project will also contribute to the post-Bogor agenda setting (while details on this remain to be seen, however, engaging SMEs and women entrepreneurs across the APEC region is assumed to be focused upon). 

Alignment – Forum: The project will be implemented primarily as a CTI project. As it is realistic for SMEs with less capital to focus on less capital intensive service sectors, public (or social) sectors, e.g., education services, environmental management services and real estate services (regulated by domestic licensing) will be taken up as case studies. The project is also expected to support the ongoing work of creating an “APEC Index” proposed under GOS. 

In terms of GATS’ service classification, the following three service sectors will be considered (subject to revision, depending on the needs and priority of the APEC).

01.D. Real Estate Services (01 means “business services”)

05. Educational Services

06. Environmental Services (Manufacturing-related environmental services will also be addressed in connection to environmental services) 

Among these GATS-defined service sectors, the category of “environmental services” remains relatively under-defined. Based on generally accepted perception, green economy is defined as an economy that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. A schematic description is as follows.

Negative environmental impact, “CO2”, is decomposable into three factors:

CO2 = (CO2/R) * (R/GDP) * GDP

Where

CO2: Negative environmental impacts (in general);

R: Resource use for economic activities;

GDP: Gross Domestic Product.

Green Economy can then be seen as any type of economic activities contributing to the increase of GDP and decrease of either CO2/R (i.e., environmentally cleaner resource use) or R/GDP (more efficient resource use), with a view to reducing the level of CO2.

TILF/ASF Justification

Not Applicable.

Beneficiaries and Outputs

Outputs: A research report will be uploaded to the APEC Publication website for viewing among APEC fora (CTI,GOS,SMEWG,PPWE, APEC Study Centers (ASC) and APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC).) as well as industry associations and private-sector stakeholders. Through inviting collaboration from these stakeholders, several field visits and online surveys will be undertaken. Background research work has so far been made by the APEC Study Center Japan which has a separate research budget. (The APEC Study Center Japan’s existing resources will continue to be used to conduct research, collect information, and write-up of the report.) 

The report (targeting two hundred pages in length including Executive Summary and Appendices) will cover education and environmental services, as part of necessary “public goods”, as well as real-estate service which is domestically oriented. A possible structure (tentative) of the proposed research publication (for circulation among the governments) is as follows:

Executive Summary

Chapter 1 Background setting (with reference to expanding service sectors and FTAs)

Chapter 2 Indexation of the degree of service liberalization under existing FTAs: Comparison of Service Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) (based on OECD and the World Bank’s policy criteria including legal form of entry and restrictions on foreign equity, licensing requirements, restrictions on operation, regulatory environment and qualification requirements) and Hoekman Index (based on the World Bank) from the perspectives of SMEs, women entrepreneurs and green economy

Chapter 3 FTAs and size of the investing service suppliers: firm-level evidence

Chapter 4 Case study of service sectors: SMEs in view

Chapter 5 Case study of service sectors: women entrepreneurship in focus

Chapter 6 Case study of service sectors: green economy in scope

Chapter 7 Policy suggestion: Introduction of a framework for service trade liberalization in favor of SMEs, women entrepreneurs and green economy

Appendices 

OECD, a forerunner in the field of service trade restrictiveness indexation, lists the following five policy areas as relevant to service trade restrictiveness: (1)Restrictions on foreign entry, (2) Restrictions to movement of people, (3) Other discriminatory measures, (4) Barriers to competition and (5) Regulatory transparency (World Bank also covers similar policy areas). OECD’s and World Bank’s indices remain partial in terms of covered economies and covered sectors. The project will therefore attempt to apply (in a modified form) the World Bank’s and OECD’s method to uncovered service sectors (i.e., environmental services, education services as well as real estate services remain “uncovered” by OECD or the World Bank) building upon the methodological work by OECD (Geloso Grosso et al., 2015), as a new contribution from APEC. In a sense, it is hoped that this project could contribute to pilot projects for developing an “APEC Index” which is being conducted by GOS. (The PO happens to assume the role of an expert at the technical meeting for developing an APEC Index; and it seems that, while some pilot projects will be suggested in the technical group itself, collaboration beyond the technical group is indispensable, given the volume of work to do, including inventory making of existing domestic legal measures per economy and per service sector, and developing an APEC-style indexation method while being informed by both OECD and the World Bank). 

The selected sectors (education, environmental, and real-estate services) indicate comparative advantage of SMEs and women entrepreneurs. This project aims at promoting participation of SMEs and women into service sectors first and then into service trade. This project’s aim, through preparation of a research report, is to develop a set of indices for potential use in the APEC-wide policy formulation on the liberalization of trade in services. 

Reference:
Geloso Grosso, M. et al. (2015), “Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Scoring and Weighting Methodology”, OECD Trade Policy Papers, No. 177, OECD Publishing (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js7n8wbtk9r-en).

Outcomes: In order to assess service trade restrictiveness, service-related domestic regulations are examined. This research project will elucidate what sort of service trade restrictions exist for several sectors, with SMEs and women entrepreneurs in focus. APEC-wide policy frameworks could then be tailor-made to engage not just large firms but also smaller scale business activities. The project is also expected to promote an APEC-wide discussion with the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) in view. Figure 2 shows the disparity among WTO’s GATS-level restrictiveness (sometimes highest), FTA-level restrictiveness and domestic regulatory restrictiveness (sometimes the lowest although non-binding (but hope of binding in the future). The project will focus on domestic regulations (indicated as red and yellow dotted lines). Comparisons with GATS-level and FTA-level commitments (internationally binding but sometimes more restrictive) will also be made to the extent possible.

Beneficiaries:  Senior officials as well as their junior colleagues from the APEC member economies attending collaborating fora meetings (CTI,GOS,SMEWG, and PPWE), as well as experts attending the technical group for developing an APEC Index (both academic and independent) are the direct users of the output of this project (in the form of a research report). Applying the APEC projects’ evaluation criteria of relevance, impact, effectiveness, sustainability and efficiency, small-scale service suppliers in several services sub-sectors (including social services such as education services and environmental services, as well as domestically oriented services e.g., real estate services) will be selected. In this sense, private sector representatives and industry experts in these sectors are also beneficiaries. 

This project is also expected to support APEC’s efforts on launching, at an appropriate point in time, official discussion on the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP)As for SMEs and women entrepreneurs in particular, their empowerment strategy includes promotion of access to capital, access to market, skills and capacity building for entrepreneurship, adaptation to new innovation and technology are among the key policy issues in the APEC region. Further, business persons involved in the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) and researchers affiliated with the APEC Study Centers across the APEC members will be consulted for collecting information on actual service trade barriers. Gender balance will surely be considered since this research project taps female consultants as “professional service providers” in mode 4.

Dissemination

The electronic copy of a research report (in a book format) will be prepared and circulated. The Report will also reside in the APEC Publication website and follow APEC Publication guidelines. The target audience is APEC-related government officials (in connection to trade in services and specific service sectors, i.e., education, environment and real estate services) as well as business persons and academic researchers relevant to APEC’s TILF activities. After completion of this project, publishing the report as a book is pursued, not for commercial or profit-making purposes but for information sharing purposes. More specifically, printing-on-demand (POD) publication (possibly at Amazon) will be pursued, in consultation with the APEC Secretariat which possesses the copyright of the report. The published work (with an appropriate ISBN) will then be shared among government senior officials and their junior colleagues, private sector service suppliers (in connection to the ABAC), and academia in the APEC region (including participants at APEC Study Centre Consortium Conferences). There will also be other plans where project results are further promoted, e.g., PO to make reporting and briefings at collaborating APEC fora meetings.

Gender

SMEs (incl. women entrepreneurs) face intended as well as unintended barriers for entry into the exporting and investment market. Due to such market failure arising from information asymmetry and externality, socially desirable supply of “public goods” services by SMEs and women entrepreneurs is not attained. Hence, there is a need to reduce the degree of market failure SMES and women entrepreneurs tend to face, by proper government intervention. With these in view, the online survey to be conducted under the project will collect anonymous but sex-disaggregated data for capturing implicit “gender bias”. Also, the PO will ensure that contractors for this project are dominantly women.

Work Plan

Time

Tasks

Deliverables

Nov.2018

Hire consultants with relevant skills and experiences

Project team established
TOR to be prepared and signed

Jan.2019

Collect legal information

Relational Database (Microsoft Access more specifically, which can flexibly "relate" multiple data sheets for required policy analysis purposes) to be constructed (as a first-step)

Feb.2019

Draft first one chapter of the report

First draft to be written

March.2019

Conduct online survey

Survey results to be compiled

April.2019

Conduct interviews on service trade barriers by policy area

Interview results to be compiled

May-June.2019

Draft the rest of the research report

Draft of the research report will be prepared

July- August.2019

Circulate the draft report to the governments for comments and endorsement

Semifinal draft of the report will be prepared

Sept.2019

Finalize the project for endorsement and public dissemination

List of amendments to be prepared

Oct-Dec.2019

P.O. to report on this project at various APEC forums

Presentation files for this project to be prepared

Dec.2019

P.O. to prepare a Completion Report

Completion Report to be prepared

Feb.2020

P.O. apply for a new seminar project based on the final report

Application form of the new seminar project to be prepared

March.2020

Start to participate in the Long Term Evaluation of APEC Projects

Self evaluation of this project to be prepared

As for indexation more specifically, the project will release a research report as the main output which includes indexation and case studies of the degree of service trade restrictiveness. As for indexation, Table 2 shows the Hoekman Index as an illustration (based on Hoekman, 1995). This Index measures the degree of service trade opening up (rather than service trade restrictiveness) and takes the value between 0 and 1, the lowest value (0) being least committed and the highest value (1) being fully committed to service trade liberalization; in contrast, OECD’s and World Bank’s service trade restrictiveness indices measure the degree of restriction, hence the higher value indicates a higher barrier.

This research project will attempt to create a benchmark index showing the restrictiveness of service trade for 01.Business Services, 05.Educational Services, and 06.Environmental Services (headings are italicized and underlined in the Table).

Reference:

Hoekman, Bernard (1995). “Assessing the General Agreement on Trade in Services”, World Bank Discussion Paper No.307, World Bank.

Risks

While investigation of service trade restrictiveness (for a few sectors, i.e., real estate, education and environment (subject to revision)) is an important APEC agenda, indexation of the degree of restrictiveness inevitably entails the issue of subjectivity and hence bias in judgement. In this connection, the bottom part of Table 3 shows a part of OECD’s weighting (as experts judgement) by policy area and sector. The issue of subjective weighting will also be an issue in this project, posing some sort of implementation risk. That said, efforts to measure service trade restrictiveness in this project would be a necessary first-step.

In terms of the implementation of this project, there are other risks associated with the implementation and the results of this project, including:

a.  Risk of not hiring an adequate contractor for the report: to be mitigated through hiring consultants already familiar with APEC-related research issues, including, most importantly, trade and investment liberalization and facilitation (TILF);

b.  Risk of non-engagement from other economies: to be mitigated through utilizing multiple channels (collaborating APEC fora for this project; APEC Study Centers; and APEC Business Advisory Council);

c.  Risk of low relevance of subject to the wide APEC economies: to be mitigated through always putting the overall issue of TILF (trade and investment liberalization and facilitation) in view;

d.   Risk of non-application of report (sustainability issue) by economies: to be mitigated through linking the issue of service trade liberalization to the overall APEC agenda of TILF, which (it seems) will catalyze the launching of an APEC-wide service trade negotiations (including the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific);

e.   Risk of limited dissemination channels: to be mitigated through utilizing multiple dissemination channels (i.e., collaborating APEC fora for this project; APEC Study Centers; and APEC Business Advisory Council, as mentioned in b. above).

Monitoring and Evaluation

Circulation (by email) of a semi-final research report, to be prepared as the main output of this project, among several APEC fora (CTI, GOS, SMEWG and PPWE) and the APEC Study Centers, will serve as a monitoring tool, since there will be feedback comments on the circulated report which will touch upon the issue of service trade liberalization efforts at the project level and also at the APEC level. Possible indicators are: number of case studies, number of service sectors, number of economies engaged, number of dissemination channels, and a set of policy recommendations with a set of calculated indices (with number of APEC economies covered). In the online survey, sex-disaggregated data will be collected using ICT technologies (including Google Analytics). Also, indicators specifically for SME workers’ and women entrepreneurs’ participation in this project are both quantitative (e.g., the number of relevant business persons and contractors involved; and the questionnaire-based surveys on SME and women entrepreneurship in the services sector) as well as qualitative (comments from SMEs and women entrepreneurs on the implantation of this project). When feedback comments are provided, their number as well as the feedback comments themselves will also be useful indicators to know the impact of this project. As the contents of the report will be collected mainly through record-reviews and interviews, feedback comments themselves are expected to complement and enrich the contents of the research report for finalization.

Possible indicators are: number of case studies (three companies times three sectors), number of service sectors (three sectors times four modes of service supply), number of economies engaged (all twenty-one economies as long as cooperation is secured), and a set of policy recommendations (for three sectors times four modes of supply) with a set of calculated indices (for three sectors times four modes of supply for each economy; the number of economies engaged is targeted above).

Linkages

The APEC Study Centers across the APEC member economies will be engaged in this project: their active participation in the process of conducting field surveys will have a catalytic role to further strengthen the linkage between the APEC’s inter-governmental fora (CTI, GOS, SMEWG and PPWE) and the APEC Study Centers across the APEC region (often connected to local business stakeholders including industry associations related to SMEs and women entrepreneurs). Non-APEC stakeholders including APEC members’ FTA partners would also benefit from this project, since the service sector liberalization especially in the form of rule-making would naturally have a “spill-over” impact on non-APEC stakeholders’ service trade promotion.

As for previous work, APEC’s Policy Support Unit (PSU) has issued the following documents (downloadable at https://www.apec.org/About-Us/Policy-Support-Unit/PSU-Publications):

APEC Services Competitiveness Roadmap Baseline Indicators, 2017

Sector Study on Environmental Services: Environmental Damage Remediation Services, 2017

Sector Study on Environmental Services: Energy Efficiency Businesses, 2017

Sector Study on Environmental Services: Renewable Energy, 2017

APEC Economic Policy Report 2016: Structural Reform and Services, 2016

Survey of Regulatory Measures in Environmental Services, 2016

In view of these publications, APEC which has a close linkage with services sector liberalization, has the right comparative advantage, and this project is expected to build on these research efforts by focusing on SMEs, women entrepreneurs and indexation methodology.

Sustainability

The beneficiaries of this project will continue to be informed on the progress of SMEs’ and women entrepreneurs’ participation in service trade through the APEC-wide efforts including the APEC Index for service trade liberalization, as the proposed project overseer will continue to be engaged in this policy area. Considering the official status of APEC Study Centers, an overarching, APEC-wide new reporting mechanism connecting representatives of APEC Study Centers and APEC economic leaders (much like APEC Roundtable meetings involving economic leaders and ABAC representative CEOs), could be established officially for sustainable and effective reporting. 

Upon completion and endorsement of the research report prepared under this project, a dialogue workshop will be proposed as a new APEC project, with a view to inviting speakers from the governments, private sector and academia, who are knowledgeable on the issue of involving SMEs and women entrepreneurs in services trade, for knowledge dissemination. The progress on the outcomes and impacts of this project will be measured by the feedback response from APEC fora (CTI,GOS,SMEWG, and PPWE). It is, however, a conventional APEC-related wisdom and experience that mere publication of reports would not promote SMEs’ and women entrepreneurs’ participation in foreign services markets. This project will therefore attempt to actually stimulate service investment by possibly holding a seminar (as a separate but related APEC project) to tap service -related SMEs and women entrepreneurs for sharing their views on overcoming service trade barriers and their potential service projects applicable in the APEC region.

Project Overseers

The Project Overseer (Hikari Ishido, Ph.D. in economics, Director of the APEC Study Center Japan and Professor at Chiba University) under proposal has participated in the Bogor-Goals mid-term stock take in 2005 as an Expert; also, he has served as the Individual Action Plan (IAP) Peer Reviewer for the Republic of Korea in 2006. He also coordinates research activities under the networking of the “APEC Study Center Japan” in collaboration with other economies’ counterpart Centers. In view of this, the proposed project overseer is able to manage contractors and specialist for this project, and also is expected to solidify linkages among APEC fora, the APEC Study Centers and service-related business sectors.

Cost Efficiency

Not Applicable.

Drawdown Timetable

Not Applicable.

Direct Labour

Independent consultants (preferably female experts and business persons in connection to SMEs) will be contracted. The main consultant’s scope of work is to collaborate with PO in terms of establishing a research team, make sub-contracting and engage in research activities including the following stages: (1) legal data collection (inventory making) for the selected service sectors; (2)  developing templates for indexation of service trade restrictiveness (3) conducting field research for case studies and online surveys; (4) compiling the legal data for calculating indices; and (5) drafting policy suggestions while incorporating all the research components above.

Waivers

PO wishes to include, as appropriate, colleagues (as part-time workers) at PO’s main work place (Chiba University, which functions as Secretariat of the APEC Study Center Japan), for smooth contracting and also for ease of blending APEC Study Center Japan’s existing research outputs (developed but only half finished by those part-time workers) into this project. The PO will see to it that the allocated budget be used without any conflicts of interest.

Are there any supporting document attached?

Yes 
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Project No.

Project Title

Project Status

Publication (if any)

Fund Account

Sub-fund

Project Year

Project Session

APEC Funding

Co-funding Amount

Total Project Value

Sponsoring Forum

Topics

Committee

Other Fora Involved

Other Non-APEC Stakeholders Involved

Proposing Economy(ies)

Co-Sponsoring Economies

Expected Start Date

Expected Completion Date

Project Proponent Name 1

Job Title 1

Organization 1

Postal Address 1

Telephone 1

Fax 1

Email 1

Project Proponent Name 2

Job Title 2

Organization 2

Postal Address 2

Telephone 2

Fax 2

Email 2

Declaration

Project Summary

Relevance

Objectives

Alignment

TILF/ASF Justification

Beneficiaries and Outputs

Dissemination

Gender

Work Plan

Risks

Monitoring and Evaluation

Linkages

Sustainability

Project Overseers

Cost Efficiency

Drawdown Timetable

Direct Labour

Waivers

Are there any supporting document attached?

hdFldAdmin

Project Number

Previous Fora

Secretariat Comments

Reprogramming Notes

Consolidated QAF

Endorsement By Fora

PD Sign Off

Batch

Forum Priority

Committee Ranking Category

Committee Priority

PDM Priority

Priority Within Funding Category

Monitoring Report Received

Completion Report Received

PMU Field 1

PMU Field 2

PMU Field 3

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