Project Title

APEC Peer Review on Low-Carbon Energy Policies (PRLCE), Phase 4 

Project Year

2017   

Project Number

EWG 01 2017A 

Project Session

Session 1   

Project Type

Standard 

Project Status

Project in Implementation   
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Project No.

EWG 01 2017A 

Project Title

APEC Peer Review on Low-Carbon Energy Policies (PRLCE), Phase 4 

Project Status

Project in Implementation 

Publication (if any)

 

Fund Account

APEC Support Fund 

Sub-fund

ASF: Energy Efficiency 

Project Year

2017 

Project Session

Session 1 

APEC Funding

47,705 

Co-funding Amount

365,531 

Total Project Value

413,236 

Sponsoring Forum

Energy Working Group (EWG) 

Topics

Energy 

Committee

SOM Steering Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation (SCE) 

Other Fora Involved

 

Other Non-APEC Stakeholders Involved

 

Proposing Economy(ies)

Japan 

Co-Sponsoring Economies

Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Thailand 

Expected Start Date

01/08/2017 

Expected Completion Date

31/12/2018 

Project Proponent Name 1

Masaomi Koyama (new PO wef 11 July 2017) 

Job Title 1

Director, Overseas Energy Infrastructure Office, International Affairs Division Agency for Natural Resources and Energy 

Organization 1

Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) 

Postal Address 1

1-3-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8931, Japan 

Telephone 1

81-3 35010598 

Fax 1

Not Applicable 

Email 1

koyama-masaomi@meti.go.jp 

Project Proponent Name 2

Not Applicable 

Job Title 2

Not Applicable 

Organization 2

Not Applicable 

Postal Address 2

Not Applicable 

Telephone 2

Not Applicable 

Fax 2

Not Applicable 

Email 2

Not Applicable 

Declaration

Masaomi Koyama 

Project Summary

The PRLCE responds to the Energy Ministers’ instruction from their meeting in Fukui, Japan in 2010; to explore mechanisms to encourage APEC economies to set individual goals and action plans for introducing low-emission power sources.

A peer review team comprised of experts on low-carbon energy supply policy from APEC member economies will review goals and policies to promote low-carbon energy supply. The review team will provide recommendations based on this and assist with effective policy making in this area as well as the effective formulation of action plans, etc.

Low-emission power sources include renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel with carbon capture and storage.  The scope of review will be decided depending on the host economy’s priorities. One PRLCE is planned in Papua New Guinea with a focus on hydro power generation in 2017.

Relevance

The APEC Energy Ministers at their 9th Meeting in Fukui, Japan in 2010 instructed the APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to explore mechanisms to encourage APEC economies to set individual goals and action plans for introducing low-emission power sources with assistance from APERC and relevant technology expert groups, building upon the success of the APEC Peer Review on Energy Efficiency (PREE). 

In implementing the APEC Ministers’ instructions, this project has put its initial focus on renewable energy power supply. The growing interest among APEC economies in promoting renewable energy for a sustainable energy future is the main reason for this initial focus. 

Currently, the development of low-emission power sources is strongly dependent upon government support through economic and regulatory policies. As such, it is of paramount importance for each government to specify clearly its long-term policy framework of goals and action plans regarding low-emission power sources to seek strong participation of stakeholders, especially the business and science communities. In addition, clear goals and action plans would also help the government to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the action plans and provide feedback for follow-up actions should the need arise. 

This project is directly linked to “Energy efficiency, energy security and energy resiliency including the development of low carbon technology and alternative energy sources” (Rank 2), which is because the PRLCE Phase 4 aims to support continuous low-carbon energy supply improvement and capacity building of implementing recommendations made by the review team. 

Papua New Guinea, who will be hosting Phase 4 of PRLCE, envisions the increased use of its renewables sources such as geothermal, wind and biomass for power generation. It plans to reduce dependency on diesel for power generation and generate 25% of the economy’s electricity demand from renewables. The peer review team will visit the host economy and discuss with the policy makers and other stakeholders in the host economy to make draft policy recommendations. The draft recommendations will be further discussed with the host economy for the completion of a Peer Review Report. The discussion process will be a capacity building that hopes to assist the economy in formulating the necessary policies in implementing low carbon energy supply, and consequently in achieving its goal.

Objectives

This project seeks to achieve the following objectives:

1)  Share the experiences and knowledge on the best practices of efficient and effective policies to promote low-emission power sources in APEC member economies;

2)  Encourage APEC economies to set individual goals on power supply from low-emission power resources and to formulate action plans to achieve these goals. The goals and action plans should take into account the diversity of possible strategies that could be used depending upon the circumstances of individual member economies; and

3)  Provide recommendations for voluntary implementation on how the action plans could be improved with a view to implementing policies to achieve these goals and monitoring them, as well as alternatives to overcome any impediments of current plan or policies.

Alignment

In pursuit of APEC leaders’ Growth Strategy adopted at their 2010 Yokohama meeting, APEC aims to achieve five growth attributes, namely, balanced, inclusive, sustainable, innovative and secure growth. Two of these attributes directly apply to the EWG activities. 

For Sustainable Growth, the leaders discussed how APEC needs to promote new green industries and jobs. They cited the need to develop a low-carbon energy sector, and specifically mentioned that APEC will “explore mechanisms to encourage economies to set individual plans to introduce low-emission power sources”. 

For Innovative Growth, the leaders discussed how APEC needs to adopt policies that foster an enabling environment for innovative growth that will be increasingly crucial for future prosperity. They specifically mentioned the need for innovation in new products and services that can enhance progress on critical global issues, including the environment and energy. PRLCE will thus serve as one of the key building blocks of the APEC Growth Strategy. 

The APEC EMM11 declaration in Beijing instructed the EWG and EGNRET to continue its research and initiatives that contribute to sustainable development within the region and also to develop the road map for the aspirational goal of doubling the share of renewables in the APEC energy mix, including in power generation by 2030.

TILF/ASF Justification

PRLCE Phase 4 is an APEC Support Fund project targeted at developing economies such as Papua New Guinea, which will benefit from a larger renewable power supply and its effects such as a reduction of CO2 emissions, better air quality and less exposure to fossil fuels’ high prices and supply disruptions. As explained in the Objectives above, PRLCE Phase 4 will contribute to help the economies’ capacity to implement effective policies to promote renewable power supplies which is especially significant since developing economies are less likely to develop effective actions for introducing renewable power in comparison to developed economies.

Beneficiaries and Outputs

Outputs: The output of this project is a Peer Review Report which includes recommendations on the best practices for promoting low-carbon energy policies. The Report also encompasses the identification of barriers for the effective implementation of the action plans and recommendations in a wide range of subjects, such as institutional framework, goals and strategy, data collection and monitoring. Once the Peer Review Process has been finished, the Final Report will be published on the APEC and APERC website. 

Outcomes: By implementing the recommendations identified peer review report, the low-carbon energy supply including renewable, nuclear and fossil-fuels with high technologies will be promoted in the economy which will contribute to the sustainable development. 

Beneficiaries: The immediate beneficiaries of this project are the governments and policy-makers responsible for low carbon energy policy in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this way, these beneficiaries are expected to gain valuable knowledge on low-carbon energy policies issues to ultimately seize the potential on this subject of PNG to improve their policies and deploy better goals and strategies to strengthen their institutional framework, financial schemes and R&D mechanisms. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy of PNG was mandated to ensure 100% power supply from renewable and sustainable energy sources with due consideration to the environment. The participants are expected to have experiences in promotion of low-carbon energy policies and knowledge of renewable energy sources in PNG. Besides the government officials, other renewable energy practitioners in PNG, such as private sector, NGO and other community representatives will be invited in order to develop practical renewable energy policies in PNG. 

Moreover, as the project strives to promote low carbon energy development across the APEC region, the ultimate beneficiary of the project is the population, who is impacted by the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the improvement of their living conditions. Through the exchange of the information contained in the Peer Review Report and the benefits accomplished in the economy as a whole, such as the promotion of economic growth, business and jobs as a result of the development of a low carbon energy industry. 

Other APEC economies attempting to implement renewable power policies should also benefit from this project by having more information on the findings of the PRLCE in PNG, which will be available for public consultation and presented as well at the APERC Workshops held in conjunction with the EWG meetings.

Dissemination

In order to amplify the target audience for these documents, the “Peer Review Report on Low Carbon Energy Policies” for each host economy will be available on the APEC and APERC websites. 

The target audience comprises of APEC officials responsible for low carbon energy policies and general public, mainly authorities at different government-levels, in each host economy where the project is carried out. 

There is no intention to sell any outputs related to this project. 

The Project Overseer will ensure that the final report complies with APEC Intellectual Property Policy, Publications and Logo Guidelines.

Gender

Women’s participation is welcomed. Accordingly, their involvement is considered throughout this project, including their participation in the peer review team. Women are a major stakeholder group who provide valuable input and expertise to design policies and plans for sustainable development. 

Studies have shown that climate change exacerbates gender inequality as women, especially in less developed economies, are more affected by the impacts of climate change. For example, women are more likely to die in natural disasters and large scale climate events than men, which increase in frequency and potency as climate change continues (see e.g., http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10117IIED.pdf). This project actively aim to reduce the impacts on climate change in the APEC region. According to UNDP, women spend considerable time gathering biomass for energy in developing economies and have more risk to be exposed to indoor air pollution from burning traditional biomass (http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/gender-and-sustainable-energy.html). Access to clean energy will reduce the burden and health risk of women. Therefore, low-carbon energy policy development is likely to have a positive impact to the benefit of women.

Work Plan

The PRLCE Phase 4 project is aimed to be carried out in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in August 2017. The approach of the PRLCE project is standardized for all economies and considers the formation of a peer review team recruited by APERC with the host economy’s consultation that might include experts from other APEC economies, APEC’s Expert Group on New and Renewable Energy Technologies (EGNRET) and international organizations. Prior to the review team’s visit to the host economy, the host economy will prepare a background briefing outlining the status of the energy sector in the host economy, as well as the economy’s low carbon energy policies and programs. Simultaneously, the host economy will determine which sectors should be the focus of the review and who should be interviewed as stakeholders by the review team. The stakeholders may be policy makers and government officials responsible for energy policies, representatives of the private sector, industry associations, academia, or non-profit organizations. 

The peer review team will then visit PNG to meet the major stakeholders selected by their governments. After the visit, the peer review team will prepare a preliminary draft review report which will then be subject to possible modifications upon the host economy’s review and comments. The draft review report will then be submitted to EWG members for their approval. 

The outcome expected from PRLCE Phase 4 is a deliverable document named “Peer Review Report on Low-Carbon Energy Policies” in PNG, which will recognize and be responsive to the context for low-carbon energy policies in the economy, encompassing its policy framework to identify barriers to the effective implementation of action plans and recommendations for introducing and/or promoting low-carbon energy, including renewable, nuclear and clean fossil technologies. 

The PNG EWG member was advised and briefed on the peer review process and their Ministry’s respective responsibilities four months in advance. They committed to submit the background information on the given date (one month before the peer review). 

The timing of peer review was decided to be implemented at the earliest possible dates of APEC Project Session 1, 2017 based on the instruction by the EWG Program Director in the EWG52 meeting in Moscow. As implementation process is very tight with the approval of budget, The Project Overseer will seek nominations of experts from the EWG members indicating the condition of budget approval. 

1) June 2017, Formation of peer review team: The project overseer will recruit peer review team. Possible members would include experts from AEPC member economies, EGNRET and international organizations. 

2) June – August 2017, Preparation by host economy: The host economy will prepare a background briefing outlining the status of the energy sector in the host economy, as well as the economy’s low-carbon energy policies and programs. The host economy will identify the focused area for the review and the stakeholders to be involved in the review process.  APERC will consult with the host economy to include visits to renewable energy installations in both urban and rural areas. 

3) 1– 4 August 2017, Peer Review: Four days peer review will be conducted. The peer review team will visit the host economy and discuss with stakeholders in the host economy. 

4) August – September 2017, draft peer review report: APERC with inputs from the peer review team will draft the peer review report based upon the review visit. 

5) October 2017: The draft peer review report will be examined by the host economy. 

6) 1st week November 2017: The review report will be revised based on the comments by the host economy. 

7) 2nd week November 2017: The review report will be examined and hopefully be endorsed by EWG members. 

8) 54th EWG Meeting (20-24 November 2017): Papua New Guinea and EWG Secretariat tables the final draft review report at EWG for its discussion and approval. 

9) December 2017 (As soon as endorsed): PRLCE in PNG Final Report will be posted on both the APEC and APERC websites.

Risks

In PRLCE Phase 4 project, APERC interacts with the government officials who are responsible for low carbon energy policies on the present status of their strategic goals and action plans. APERC also exchanges information with experts from EGNRET, as well as international organizations such as IEA, IRENA and ADB for the renewable energy component of the review, on the challenges and barriers to effective policy implementation. APERC plans to continue consulting these experts as the project advances to manage the risks which may be involved in implementing the project. 

The critical risks to the success of the project are:

1)  Lack of access to economy-specific low carbon energy data and policies. The preparation of the background briefing for the review team regarding the status of the energy sector, as well as low carbon energy policies and programs, is essential in order to conduct peer reviews on a limited time schedule. APERC will minimize this risk by closely coordinating with the host economy and asking them to provide relevant data and information well in advance.  If the background briefing lack information, APERC can provide estimates, data of PNG and other necessary info.

2)  Lack of diverse perspectives when conducting peer review. A variety of perspectives, including not only government, but also the industry and financial sectors as well as NGOs, is essential to comprehensively examine low-carbon energy policy issues and to make useful recommendations to tackle deficiencies. APERC will minimize this risk by working closely with the host economy to arrange opportunities for as many as possible of the relevant stakeholders to meet with the review team.

3)  Lack of low carbon energy policy experts participating in the peer review team. There is expected to be a limited number of low carbon energy policy experts from APEC economies who are available to voluntarily participate in the peer review team. To solve this problem, APERC will develop a register of low carbon energy experts. APERC will also work closely with the chair of EGNRET to ensure that low carbon energy experts join the peer review team.

4)  Lack of interest from host economies for PRLCE Phase 4 and beyond. APERC will try to avoid this risk by capitalizing on the past successful experience with PRLCE Phases 1 – 3 to demonstrate its benefits and persuade them to carry out this project.

5)  Lack of follow-up cooperation from host economies for PRLCE Phase 4 and beyond. APERC will try to avoid this risk by stressing the relevance of monitoring and stepping up this project and fostering further collaboration to ensure the project’s continual success.

6) Delayed submission of recommendations from experts due to tight schedule – APERC will ensure constant communication with experts. If full recommendations from respective experts are not received on time, APERC will make use of the draft recommendations given during the peer review process and expound the draft recommendation as needed.

Monitoring and Evaluation

In order to ensure that the results from this project are incorporated into the public policies of Papua New Guinea, the number of recommendations provided by the review team in their report and the recommendations to be addressed by the host economy will be used as indicators to track the project’s achievements. Not all recommendations may be implemented immediately, for example, additional capacity installation from renewables or other low carbon energy supply, but possibly, a year after the peer review this could be monitored through the data maintained by APERC. In previous peer reviews, recommendation would usually include enhancing regulatory procedures to encourage more renewable energy investors. If the host economy would follow the recommendation, and investors would come in to develop renewable energy, then the project would be successful. The fact that peer review report is completed and presented to EWG members for their consideration at the next EWG meeting will also indicate follow-up on the project. APERC will also collect the participants’ feedback through a survey to gather their impressions and values perceived from the project. 

The number of stakeholders visited by the review team can be an indicator to measure if the review team interview various stakeholders including representatives from government ministries, research institutes, industry associations, energy companies, local government and other relevant groups. 

The percentage of female participation during the peer review to see if the recommendation were made considering inputs from both men and women. 

The number of APERC website hits will show if the project is successful in attracting interest. 

In addition, as this is a multi-staged project, the next phases encompass subsequent visits to track and review the progress of the recommendations suggested as well as to stress any hurdles that might be obstructing their implementation in the hosting economies.

Linkages

Building on the PREE project, which also employs a peer review mechanism to address goals and action plans and identify effective policy approaches, the PRLCE is expected to contribute to sustainable energy development in the APEC region by centering on the low-carbon energy policies, which complements PREE’s focus on the energy policies’ demand side of low-carbon energy. 

It is worth mentioning that the successful implementation of PRLCE Phase 1(in Thailand and in the Philippines) 2 (in Indonesia and in Malaysia) and 3 (Viet Nam) call for the expansion of this mechanism to other member economies, nonetheless, this previous experience also stressed the need for a “GREW” approach, in which more cooperation among the different stakeholders involved, more resource integration, more green energy industry development and more intense promotion of renewable energy research are present. As the only forum in which leaders, ministers and working level government officials in the Asia-Pacific region share knowledge and coordinate activities related to sustainable development and energy security, APEC holds a competitive advantage in examining the wide array of issues involved with the implementation of low-carbon energy policies, and strengthening the recommendations provided to the PRLCE host economies on the basis of its expertise from previous experiences. 

Over the past years, there have also been many EWG projects implemented covering wide range of new and renewable energy technology subjects. While these projects focused on technical aspects of new and renewable energy development and individual policy measures and programs, PRLCE will address the whole range of low carbon energy policies as well as the monitoring and assessment process of the overall policy framework. For these reasons, PRLCE is different from previous efforts, and will avoid duplication of previous EWG projects. 

APERC will maintain contact with the chairpersons of relevant APEC cooperative groups such as EGNRET and LCMT Task Force to ensure that their resources are capitalized and also to ensure that none of their activities are being duplicated. APERC will also strengthen its expertise by consulting with international organizations such as IEA, IRENA, ADB, WB and promoting interaction opportunities at the APERC workshops at EWG meetings and the APERC annual conferences.

Sustainability

APEC’s PRLCE Phase 4 project is intended to be a multi-year project to promote low carbon energy policies across the APEC region that builds on the successful implementation of PRLCE Phases 1 - 3 project so that other member economies such as Papua New Guinea and another economy still not selected in this case, host subsequent peer-reviewed projects. From the experience with PREE, a follow-up mechanism will be necessary to assist the PRLCE host economies in implementing the recommendations found on the Peer Review Report to maintain their commitment and ensure the ultimate impact of the project. 

The status of renewable energy, clean fossil energy, and nuclear energy development are permanently reported and discussed at EWG meetings. The results and lessons from the project will be a basis for further discussions on stepping up low carbon energy policies in the APEC region. 

The Project Overseer through APERC will continue its cooperation with PNG. APERC collects the economy’s energy data which in a way monitors developments on the utilization of low carbon energy in PNG. If and when the economy will not be on track with its goal, APERC will know and will be ready to extend further assistance in meeting the economy’s goals.

Project Overseers

The Project Overseer is Mr. Katsushi Takehiro, Director, Office of Global Strategy for Energy Industry, International Affairs Division, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan The main points of contact responsible for this project are as follows: 

Mr. Hiroki Yoshida
Deputy Director, International Affairs Division
Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan
yoshida-hiroki@meti.go.jp

Ms. Elvira Torres Gelindon
Senior Researcher
Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC)
gelindon@aperc.ieej.or.jp

Cost Efficiency

Not Applicable.

Drawdown Timetable

Not Applicable.

Direct Labour

Not Applicable.

Waivers

Not Applicable.

Are there any supporting document attached?

No 
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Version HistoryVersion History

Project No.

Project Title

Project Status

Publication (if any)

Fund Account

Sub-fund

Project Year

Project Session

APEC Funding

Co-funding Amount

Total Project Value

Sponsoring Forum

Topics

Committee

Other Fora Involved

Other Non-APEC Stakeholders Involved

Proposing Economy(ies)

Co-Sponsoring Economies

Expected Start Date

Expected Completion Date

Project Proponent Name 1

Job Title 1

Organization 1

Postal Address 1

Telephone 1

Fax 1

Email 1

Project Proponent Name 2

Job Title 2

Organization 2

Postal Address 2

Telephone 2

Fax 2

Email 2

Declaration

Project Summary

Relevance

Objectives

Alignment

TILF/ASF Justification

Beneficiaries and Outputs

Dissemination

Gender

Work Plan

Risks

Monitoring and Evaluation

Linkages

Sustainability

Project Overseers

Cost Efficiency

Drawdown Timetable

Direct Labour

Waivers

Are there any supporting document attached?

hdFldAdmin

Project Number

Previous Fora

Secretariat Comments

Reprogramming Notes

Consolidated QAF

Endorsement By Fora

PD Sign Off

Batch

Forum Priority

Committee Ranking Category

Committee Priority

PDM Priority

Priority Within Funding Category

Monitoring Report Received

Completion Report Received

PMU Field 1

PMU Field 2

PMU Field 3

On Behalf Of

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