Project Title

Research on Mutual Recognition of Credits among Universities in the APEC Region 

Project Year

2016   

Project Number

HRD 02 2016A 

Project Session

Session 1   

Project Type

Standard 

Project Status

Project in Implementation   
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Project No.

HRD 02 2016A 

Project Title

Research on Mutual Recognition of Credits among Universities in the APEC Region 

Project Status

Project in Implementation 

Publication (if any)

 

Fund Account

APEC Support Fund 

Sub-fund

ASF: Connectivity 

Project Year

2016 

Project Session

Session 1 

APEC Funding

150,000 

Co-funding Amount

Total Project Value

150,000 

Sponsoring Forum

Human Resource Development Working Group (HRDWG) 

Topics

Human Resources Development 

Committee

SOM Steering Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation (SCE) 

Other Fora Involved

 

Other Non-APEC Stakeholders Involved

 

Proposing Economy(ies)

China 

Co-Sponsoring Economies

Australia; Indonesia; Japan; Korea; Mexico; Russia; Thailand 

Expected Start Date

01/07/2016 

Expected Completion Date

31/12/2017 

Project Proponent Name 1

Guo Jun (new PO wef 31 Oct 2017) 

Job Title 1

Director 

Organization 1

Department of International Cooperation and Exchange, Ministry of Education 

Postal Address 1

No.37, Damucang Hutong, Xidan, Beijing, 100816, China 

Telephone 1

86-10 66097620 

Fax 1

Not Applicable 

Email 1

yangcc@moe.edu.cn 

Project Proponent Name 2

Not Applicable 

Job Title 2

Not Applicable 

Organization 2

Not Applicable 

Postal Address 2

Not Applicable 

Telephone 2

Not Applicable 

Fax 2

Not Applicable 

Email 2

Not Applicable 

Declaration

Guo Jun 

Project Summary

In responding to the call of APEC leaders Declaration and APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025, this project aims at facilitating student mobility and establishing a sustainable cooperative model in APEC Region, in this way making due contribution to the pillar of People-to-people Connectivity.

The Workshop and researches will be organized to identify technical and institutional barriers of the existing credit transfer system, share information and experiences and discuss the predominant issues.

A small-scale pilot project among APEC universities will be conducted to promote mutual recognition of university credits, and to increase number of student exchanges in quantity and quality.

This project will explore practical cooperative scheme and standard of mutual recognition of university credits in combination of unique APEC regional background, so as to increase student’s mobility within APEC region.

Relevance

Relevance – Region: The increased flow of human capital and information has expanded opportunities for regional integration of the APEC member economies. Cross-border higher education has become an important mode for globalizing higher education and fostering human capacity building and economic growth. It is specifically declared in the Education 2030 Framework for Action adopted by the 38th General UNESCO General Conference on November 2015 that “strengthen international cooperation in developing cross-border tertiary education programs, including within the framework of global and regional conventions on the recognition of higher education qualifications, to support increased access, better quality assurance and capacity development”. Furthermore, it is also clearly declared in the APEC Economic Leaders Meeting Manila Declaration (2015) that “We underscore the synergy between our ambition to improve human capital development and our goals to improve people-to-people connectivity and to continue the promotion of cross-border cooperation in education. We welcome the early realization of our 2020 student mobility target of 1 million intra-APEC university-level students per year”. Therefore, it can be seen that cross-border student mobility has become the important drive to promote higher education development in APEC region. 

Research on mutual recognition of credits among universities in APEC region will contribute to further promote cross-border student mobility and accelerate higher education reforms of APEC economies. On one hand, by promoting student mobility during his or her learning period, it will bring fresh and valuable study and life experience in different universities in different economies, which is crucial for the accumulation of individual human capital. On the other hand, closer higher education system also helps universities in the APEC region to better play unique advantages, to conduct higher education quality assurance cooperation, and to improve the whole quality of higher education. 

Relevance – Rank: This project well corresponds to the Eligibility Criteria of ASF Sub-Fund on Connectivity, quoted as follows, "People-to-People Connectivity, including facilitating the movement of people across borders, and the exchange of innovative ideas, such as issues of business travel mobility, cross-border education, tourism facilitation, and skilled labor mobility". This project also highly fits Rank 1: Human capital development, including implementation of the Strategic Plan on Capacity Building to Promote the Trade and Investment Agenda, cooperation on education, skills development, science and technology and capacity building, alignment of education and training to the regional labor market needs and youth employment. 

This research will help to identify technical and institutional barriers of the existing credit transfer system, and increase number of student exchanges in quantity and quality. It will help students to understand and compare different curriculums, promote teaching reforms of higher education institutions among APEC economies. This project will design practical cooperative scheme and standard of mutual recognition of university credits in combination of unique APEC regional background, strengthen the attraction of students from non-APEC economies, and promote competiveness of higher education within APEC economies.

Objectives

The main objectives of this project are:

a) to identify technical and institutional barriers of the existing credit transfer system based on small-scale pilot project, particularly in the aspects of credit hour, credit contents, and evaluation methods;

b) to develop recommendations in breaking the predicaments of mutual recognition of credits in universities among APEC economies by hosting expert workshop;

c) to explore a cooperative framework of mutual recognition of credits in universities among APEC economies based on the evaluation of small-scale pilot project and advices and experiences from multi-stakeholders.

Alignment

Alignment - APEC: This project positively responds the instruction of APEC leaders. It reflects the instruction of “APEC Economic Leaders Meeting Manila Declaration (2015)”, which emphasizes to improve people-to-people connectivity and to continue promotion of cross-border cooperation in education. It also reflects the APEC Economic Leaders Meeting Vladivostok Declaration (2012) and Beijing Declaration (2014) that “Education is an essential driver of innovation in the APEC region and we support the steps taken by our economies to pursue practical and sustainable cooperation in this field. This includes efforts to enhance the mobility of students, researchers, and education providers within APEC through development of higher education cooperation”. In addition, in the APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025, it is clearly declared that “We undertake to improve cross-border education (CBE) cooperation, in recognition that student, academic and provider mobility helps to strengthen regional ties, facilitate people-to-people exchanges and promote economic development through knowledge and skills transfer. We resolve to achieve one million intra-APEC student exchanges per year by 2020, and to increase the number of student exchanges to developing economies.” 

The project will identify technical and institutional barriers of the existing credit transfer system, and provide references for both developed and developing economies to increase the number of student exchanges through mutual recognition of credits in universities and promote policy capacity building to contribute the APEC Leaders’ instructions above. 

Alignment – Forum: This project reflects the requirement of the 2012 APEC Education Ministerial Meeting Joint Statement, which calls for improving the quality of higher education by facilitating the mobility of students and education providers between and among APEC member economies. Furthermore, the outcomes of the project are consistent with the deliverables of HRDWG work plan. This project links directly with the key activities of HRDWG work plan 2015: to establish international cooperation of higher education.

TILF/ASF Justification

This project is intended to apply for APEC Support Fund. As mentioned above, the project will identify technical and institutional barriers of the existing credit transfer system, and provide references for both developed and developing economies to increase the number of student exchanges through mutual recognition of credits in universities and promote policy capacity building to contribute the APEC Leaders’ instructions above. Furthermore, this project will design practical cooperative scheme and standard of mutual recognition of university credits in combination of unique APEC regional background, and finally to promote student mobility and internationalization of higher education in the region. 

The project will synthesize the previous endeavours on mutual recognition of credits in the APEC region from various sectors by engaging in representatives in the APEC economies to participate in the proposed activities, including reviewing the current strategies and practices used in mutual recognition of university credits among APEC regions, identifying major obstacles, and providing recommendations to expand the scale of the pilot network of mutual recognition of university credits. 

During the implementation of the project, the policy makers, regulators, private agencies, educational administrations, academia and students from the APEC developing economies will be particularly invited to attend the workshop and the higher education institutions from those economies will be particularly invited to join the small-scale pilot project.

Beneficiaries and Outputs

The main outputs are as follows:

Output 1: Best practices and major obstacles in mutual recognition of university credits among APEC regions

The preliminary research of the studies and analysis on the current strategies and practices will be conducted. The cases of pilot universities and insights from the experts will be examined. The research paper will analyze different credit system in different economies and identify the main obstacles in mutual recognition of university credits, also it may offer some wisdom for the small-scale project. 

Output 2: Workshop on “Mutual Recognition of University Credits in APEC region”

The two-day workshop will be held, inviting experts and representatives from multi-stakeholders, especially pilot universities to share their information and experience and discuss the predominant issues around the mutual recognition of university credits. Also it is crucial to fully prepare for the upcoming cooperation in mutual recognition of university credits and confirm the cooperative schemes. 

Output 3: Cooperative schemes in mutual recognition of university credits

The cooperative schemes will be the attachment of the cooperative memorandum in experimenting mutual recognition of universities as well as regulation and administrative measures of credit transfer among the selected universities. It contains the scheme for credit recognition, credit conversion, credit management, credit monitoring, etc. It is designed for the specific small-scale project, but it will provide the framework for the best practices in pilot universities. 

Output 4: Evaluation report

This assessment report will evaluate implementation of the small-scale pilot project and disseminate the experience in the whole process. Key indicators like the mobility of students will be monitored and it will help to identify common approaches and best practices. This information will be particularly useful to APEC economies for deeper cooperation in credit mutual recognition. The report will be published on the APEC website. 

Output 5: APEC Guidelines for Mutual recognition of university credits

Since the project will have a long-term effect, a guideline for mutual recognition of university credits in APEC region will be created as a reference for other universities to follow up. 

Outcomes: This project aims at facilitating student mobility and establishing a sustainable cooperative model of mutual recognition of universities in APEC Region, in this way making due contribution to the pillar of People-to-people Connectivity. Specifically, in the medium-term, it expects to achieve:

1) Preliminary research will be conducted to carry out studies and analysis on the current strategies and practices used in mutual recognition of universities credits among APEC region. The analysis of the best practices and major obstacles are committed to absorbing good practices to meet better experience. We hope to integrate those wisdoms to the reality of APEC region, and formulate a series of cooperative schemes.

2)  The two-day Workshop on “Mutual Recognition of University Credits in APEC region” will be held. The project may undoubtedly promote the cooperation of the universities. We expect with the schemes, stakeholders from pilot universities may keep more intensive touch and contribute their own wisdom and improve the schemes. 

In the meantime, we hope more students are willing to study abroad since there are less obstacles in the recognition of credits. The student mobility will be fostered so that there are more effective human capital and talent flow to improve the nation's comparative advantage by optimize human capital. 

All the research papers will be available on the APEC website, so those who are interested in the relevant area can directly benefit from. Furthermore, it will set a good reference for the cooperation among APEC economies.

Beneficiaries: 
Direct participants will include educational administrators, policy makers, and higher education specialists. These participants should have abundant experiences in student mobility program both at the policy level and the practical level. The educational administrators will come from higher education institutions with global visibility. They will be responsible for sharing their best practices and major obstacles in implementing mutual recognition of credits with other universities. The policy makers are mainly from the relevant government departments in charge of international cooperation and exchanges. They will share their latest policies in mutual recognition of credits. The higher education specialists are mainly renowned scholars in the field of international education from APEC economies. They will provide their insights from the academic perspectives. All the direct participants are requested to provide recommendations and feedback for the implementation of the small-scale pilot project. 

Users of the outputs will include government departments in charge of international cooperation and exchanges, educational administrators from higher education institutions, academia, and students from all APEC economies and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) economies. Government departments will use it as foundation to update and revise their policies in mutual recognition of credits. Educational administrators from higher education institution will use it as a reference to design its own regulations. Academia will use it as a case to make scholarly research in how the mutual recognition of credits promote student mobility in the APEC region. 

The successful experience and research outcomes of this project will disseminate to more universities and more APEC economies and finally expand the scale of the pilot network of mutual recognition of university credits. This project will design practical cooperative scheme and standard of mutual recognition of university credits in combination of unique APEC regional background, and finally to promote student mobility and internationalization of higher education in the region.

As time goes on, this project will be helpful to cultivate human resource with international backgrounds and international perspective. Therefore, it is not only benefit the higher education sector but also the sustainable development of APEC economies.

Dissemination

This project aims at producing two publications (Both will be disseminated with electronic version):

·  Research report, titled “Study on Current Strategies and Practices in Mutual Recognition of University Credits in the APEC Region” will be created based on the achievements of the preliminary research and workshop.

·  The book, titled “Guideline for Mutual Recognition of Credits among Universities in the APEC region” will be produced based on the unique and valuable experiences of small-scale pilot project on how to develop and implement mutual recognition of credits among universities in the APEC region and the successful cases will also be demonstrated. 

In addition to the book to be developed after the conference, PDF copies of the invited papers will be produced for conference attendees and made available through various websites. The publication run from the post-conference volume will follow APEC publication norms. 

The Consortium of government officials, universities, and researchers for mutual recognition of credits in APEC region will be formed. And a blog will be initiated in accordance with the sustainability plan developed by the conference. This internet expression will provide wide access to the conference papers and serve as a site for further subject matter discussions and development of working groups emerging from the meeting.  The blog will be managed by APEC Higher Education Research Center (AHERC) from the implementation of the project to one year after the accomplishment. AHERC is a specialized organization and a platform to strengthen higher education exchange and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The outcomes will also be shared in APEC HRD wiki which is initiatively established by U.S.A. and used by ecomonies members. 

The target audience are educators, researchers, policymakers, educational administrators, beneficiaries of higher education services, public and private with particular attention given to those with interests in credit mutual recognition. 

In addition, the lessons learned from this project will be disseminated within APEC and external parties by presenting the research results at the APEC Future Education Forum, APEC Conference on Cooperation in Higher Education in Asia-Pacific Region and other related meetings.

Gender

In this project, we will ensure representativeness of male and female at every stage of the project. The expected percentage of female participants and speakers is from 40% to 60%. To fulfil the commitment, in the research design, we will invite the same percentage of male and female speakers, also we will encourage the pilot institutions to balance the gender issue in the student mobility. We will monitor the participation of women to ensure there are no significant gender disparities in all the areas. 

We encourage female researchers to participate in the whole project and take their advantages to contribute to the success of this project. And in the evaluation phase, we will collect and use sex-disaggregated data from participants, which will enable us to determine whether gender may contribute to the perspective or experience of the participant and make any needed adjustments.

Work Plan

This is an exploratory project, aiming at building a platform to facilitate student mobility and establish the sustainable cooperative model. The project is expected to start upon approval and end in December 2017, mainly consisting of four key phases:

Phase 1 (Upon Approval - October 2016): Preliminary research and workshop preparation

Preliminary research will be conducted to carry out studies and analysis on the current strategies and practices used in mutual recognition of university credits in the APEC region. It is anticipated that approximately 5-10 universities’ practices will be studies in this phase. It is also of utmost importance to prepare for the workshop and choose pilot universities at the very beginning of this project.

Outputs: establishing a project working group; inviting experts and representatives from APEC economies and other multi-stakeholders; identifying pilot universities; a report of “Study on Current Strategies and Practices in Mutual Recognition of University Credits in the APEC Region”; scheduling workshop agenda.

Phase 2 (November 2016): Workshop on “Mutual Recognition of University Credits in APEC Region”

It is proposed that a two-day workshop will be held. Participants especially experts from pilot universities will discuss the report produced in Phase 1 and find out the predominant obstacles around the mutual recognition of university credits. During the workshop, the crucial task is to fully prepare the cooperation in mutual recognition of university credits (for instance, credit recognition and conversion, credit management and monitoring) and confirm the cooperative scheme. 

Output: the cooperative scheme for small-scale pilot project. 

Phase 3 (December 2016 - July 2017): Small-scale pilot project implementation

5 to 10 universities from APEC member economies will be selected for the small-scale pilot project. The pilot universities will be selected with two approaches. One is that the corresponding economies recommend possible universities, and the other one is sending invitation to the universities in APEC region. It will be based on the recommendation and universities’ willingness. 

The pilot universities will sign the cooperative memorandum in experimenting mutual recognition of universities as well as regulation and administrative measures of credit transfer among the selected universities. Only certain majors that are commonly existed in the pilot universities will be selected and all the information about the course will be publicized in pilot universities for participation. 

Outputs: the Cooperative Memorandums; Regulation on Mutual Recognition of Credits among Universities in the APEC Region.

Phase 4 (August 2017 to December 2017): Project evaluation and dissemination

The evaluation will be mainly conducted to collect the feedback about the pilot project. The evaluation process will include the participation of the experts, institutions and students, mostly reflected by number and the activities held in the project. And questionnaires will be sent to the universities for the feedback of the effectiveness of the project. 

Since the project will have a long-term effect, a guideline for mutual recognition of credits among universities in the APEC region will be created as a reference for other universities to follow up. In the end, the project overseer will submit a final report and the guideline to APEC Secretariat in accordance with the APEC format on December 31st, 2017. 

Outputs: the guideline for mutual recognition of credits among universities in the APEC region; a report of “research on mutual recognition of credits among universities in the APEC region.

Risks

As a project with deep and intensive cross-border cooperation, the implementation of the project might involve the following risks:

a)   One of the major risks is to invite experts with relevant experience with relevant experience and diverse background and pilot universities that are willing to participate in the project. To tackle such potential risk, the project will encourage all the APEC economies to recommend experts whose expertise lies in relevant filed and pilot universities to share more information and experience.

b)  With the large amount of coordination workload, the limitation of resources in terms of financial, manpower, qualified profession is another risk. To address this risk, EDNET coordinator is expected to attend our workshop and relevant coordination meetings to help coordinate the cooperation among the economies’ pilot universities.

c)  The grading and grade equivalency are highly different among APEC economies. To mitigate the risk, the preliminary research will collect the existed experiences within and beyond APEC region and set it as a main agenda in the workshop and whole project to discuss,

Additional risk could be identified as direct invol.ement of university students and selection of courses for pilot project, since participation of experts and universities cannot guarantee students’ enrollment in a course, as well as the number of credits, hours, language barriers, contents of the course. Solution to such difficulties will be addressed when holding the workshop and designing the pilot study.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The project will use the following indicators to monitor the project:

a)  Participant statistics including the number, gender, institutions and economies involved in the project;

b)  The feedback from the stakeholders including the policymakers, education administrators, academia, and students; number of responses to the evaluation survey;

c)  Number of contents in the final report of this project adopted by the APEC member economies in designing its own policies with regard to the mutual recognition of credits among universities;

d)  Number of downloads of the reports distributed in APEC economies. 

The evaluation methods of the project include:

a)  Questionnaires will be used to collect the feedback about the mutual recognition framework of credit;

b)  All the reports, monograph produced by the project will go through peer review before finalization or publication. 

The interim and final outputs will be shared with EDNET members for review and feedback. Also, this project will store contact information for project participants for possible future follow-up evaluation. 

APEC Higher Education Research Center (AHERC) is responsible for monitoring the data of student mobility enrolled in the project through questionnaires, which will be also clearly stated in the Cooperative Memorandum. The data will be collected in February, 2017 and July 2017 respectively.

Linkages

Given its inter-disciplinarily nature, the project will involve not only Human Resource Development Working Group, but other related groups as well, such as Group on Services, etc. Thus, the project will seek valuable advice and suggestions from them when necessary. 

This project builds on past projects and reports related to student mobility, cross-border education and recognition of qualifications in higher education implemented by the APEC. Among them, the report titled Asia-Pacific Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education, is of the uppermost value. The project can draw upon the recognition principles and mechanisms proposed by this report, for instance, “Recognition should be timely, transparent, coherent, reliable and based on learning outcomes”.

On the other hand, China, Japan, and Korea have tri-laterally conducted Campus Asia Program (Collective Action for Mobility Program of University Students in Asia; non-APEC project) in 2011 to 2015, which is a pilot program that encourages undergraduates and graduates’ exchange program through a mutual recognition of dual degree among the three economies. From 2016, the program is officially implemented in the three economies. Reference and results produced by it will be utilized to this project.

Some international organizations have also carried out similar projects or published some documents related to mutual recognition of university credits and qualifications. For instance, “European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)” established by European Commission, “Nordic Declaration on Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education” released by Nordic ministers of education and 6 regional conventions on recognition of qualifications operated by UNESCO (including Africa, Arab States, Asia and Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Europe respectively). But generally speaking, these reports focus on the mutual recognition of higher education qualifications rather than university credits. Though the ECTS links directly to credits transfer, the system is developed specifically in the European area that have much more similarities in education system than those in the APEC region.

APEC is the most appropriate organization to fund the project, as the project aligns with its key objective of seeking to facilitate economic growth and cooperation and border goals of enhancing the mobility of students, researchers, and education providers in the APEC region. This project positively responds the instructions of APEC leaders. It reflects the instruction of “APEC Economic Leaders Meeting Manila Declaration (2015)”, which emphasizes to improve people-to-people connectivity and to continue promotion of cross-border cooperation in education. It also reflects Beijing Declaration (2014) stated that “Education is an essential driver of innovation in the APEC region and we support the steps taken by our economies to pursue practical and sustainable cooperation in this field. This includes efforts to enhance the mobility of students, researchers, and education providers within APEC through development of higher education cooperation”. The outcomes of the project will definitely promote policy capacity building to contribute the APEC Leaders’ instructions above, which will be beneficial to human resource development and economic growth in the APEC region.

Sustainability

In the educational sphere, the integration process is based primarily on the phenomenon of "Academic Mobility", which means a vigorous exchange of students (undergraduate and postgraduate), interns and academia between educational institutions worldwide. The basic prerequisite for successful international mobility is the recognition of academic credits. 

The schemes set an example for the cooperation of universities in the APEC region and provide an institution guarantee for the students’ learning behavior abroad. In the small-scale project, we try to absorb a variety of universities for the further development, this helps the schemes suitable in wider circumstances. 

To help ensure that the project sustains a positive impact beyond its implementation period, the PO will also look to ensure that policy recommendations of the research study and findings of the workshop are promoted through various APEC meetings.  The PO will also aim to distribute findings of the research to stakeholders beyond APEC fora and encourage them to consider the findings of the research and potentially take self-initiative to address these potential impediments to student mobility.

All the materials and research papers will be uploaded on the website, so government officials, educational administrator and students can share the latest news and research outputs, and to disseminate the knowledge in the APEC region continuously. In the long run, APEC Higher Education Research Center (AHERC) is responsible for releasing the annual student mobility data enrolled in the project in the following 5 years.

Project Overseers

Mr. NIE Ruilin, Director, Division of International Organization, Department of International Cooperation and Exchange, Ministry of Education, People’s Republic of China. Mr. Nie has served as director for various divisions for the Ministry of Education and his latest position is Director, Division of Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools, Ministry of Education. He has overseen several important international collaborative projects.

E-mail: nieruilin@moe.edu.cn 

Ms. YANG Cancan, Program Officer, Division of International Organizations, Department of International Cooperation & Exchange, Ministry of Education, China.

E-mail: yangcc@moe.edu.cn

Cost Efficiency

Not Applicable.

Drawdown Timetable

Not Applicable.

Direct Labour

Not Applicable.

Waivers

 

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Total Project Value

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Topics

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Other Fora Involved

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Expected Start Date

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Organization 1

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Project Summary

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Objectives

Alignment

TILF/ASF Justification

Beneficiaries and Outputs

Dissemination

Gender

Work Plan

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Monitoring and Evaluation

Linkages

Sustainability

Project Overseers

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Drawdown Timetable

Direct Labour

Waivers

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